Some interesting issues on ontologies arise in Dave Snowden’s recent work on Multi-Ontology Sense Making (Management Today Yearbook 2005, 20), and in A Leader's Framework for Decision Making (Harvard Business Review 2007 November)…

... in plain background: [Update of 14 May 2008]

... in dyslexic yellow background: [Update of 14 May 2008]

If more detail is needed, we can add additional layers to the ontologies that are discussed in these papers by bringing in, for instance, the additional layers of semiotics in this diagram, from Complex as well as Commodified Knowledge..

If we do that, we end up with a nested framework of ontologies and embedded (sub-)ontologies:

Biological complex-adaptive
within a ...

  • material semiotic: RNA/ DNA only
  • bio-semiotic: gesture, sound, smell, touch, taste
  • socio-semiotic:
      • linguistic semiotic: language
      • meta-semiotic: commodified knowledge
      • virtual semiotic: digital global (micro-) networks.