1. Narratives of Knowledge and Intelligence: beyond the tacit and explicit (2006).

Abstract
Purpose – The purpose of this article is to revisit the key terms in knowledge management (KM), particularly tacit and explicit, to develop a better framework for a theoretical and practical understanding of KM.

Design/methodology/approach – With the help of concepts like articulation and discourse, borrowed from applied linguistics, the relationships between data, information, the components of information in its various forms, knowledge and narrative are explored, to develop an integrated framework for the understanding of the complexities of the domain of knowledge management.


Findings – This study rovides a detailed assessment of the contribution of the tacit/explicit distinction to the KM debate. Develops new distinctions between formal and ante-formal information, procedural information and contextual analysis, a model of the process of developing objective information, and a model of knowledge as an articulation of procedural information and contextual analysis.

Research limitations/implications – The usefulness of the framework will only be tested when it is applied in research and in management practice. This will depend on whether the concepts and terms introduced here find their way into more common usage.

Practical implications – The study provides a useful framework and set of tools for understanding and managing the various different aspects of information, knowledge, intellectual capital, and competitive intelligence.

Originality/value – The paper brings together concepts and analytical tools from different disciplines (KM, applied linguistics, semiotics) to develop a new framework for analyzing how the component elements of KM articulate with each other. In more detail, the paper unpacks the relationships between ante-formal and formal information, procedural information and contextual analysis, the processes of objectification of information and the formation of knowledge, and the notion of knowledge as inherently narrative. Keywords Intellectual capital, Knowledge management, Narratives

And the full paper is available here ...






2. The Epistemology of Knowledge and the Knowledge Process Cycle (2008).

Abstract

Purpose of the PaperThis paper critiques current epistemologies of knowledge and intellectual capital, and provides a way forward within an integrated framework.
ApproachThe principles of linguistic philosophy and semiotics provide the basis for a rigorous analysis of the production of signs and of knowledge. The Knowledge Process Cycle is used to explore this further, to analyse how different types of communities produce a range of different kinds of information and knowledge, and to formulate a more coherent, theoretically rigorous epistemology.
FindingsThe current epistemological confusions can be resolved, by taking into account the arbitrary and conventional nature of signs, and the different epistemological requirements of the different phases of the Knowledge Cycle.
Research LimitationsThis research focuses on the confusions around ‘objectivist’ and ‘interpretivist’ epistemologies, and on how an analysis of the articulations of the various phases of the knowledge process cycle can resolve these confusions. A more detailed analysis of strategic knowledge and communities of practice will be explored in further research.
Practical ImplicationsBoth knowledge management and intellectual capital will benefit from a resolution of the confusions surrounding the roles of ‘objectivist’ and ‘interpretivist’ epistemologies, and from a more nuanced understanding of the production of Knowledge. Reporting on Intellectual Capital would benefit from finer distinctions, and from a more rigorous epistemology.
Original Value of the PaperThe paper brings together concepts and analytical tools from different disciplines (KM, IC, applied linguistics, linguistic philosophy, and semiotics) to develop a new approach to the epistemology of knowledge and intellectual capital.
Keywords: intellectual capital, articulation, ante-formal knowledge, formal knowledge, strategic knowledge.

And the full paper is available here ...